Catastrophism: God's Judgment's and the Lull Before the Space Weather
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Catastrophism: God's Judgment's and the Lull Before the Space Weather Storm: Will You Survive?
Preparing for Eternity
A Special Thank You to my faithful Patron's who make these writings available.
I will be on Lost Arts Radio tomorrow night (Sunday, March 24) at 6 PM, PT for a 2 hour program talking about Herbs and Herbal Medicine. Check it out!
Earth is about to get slammed into in the next hours by a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). The good news is that it is mild, the bad news is that the heavenlies are intensifying for some major events to continue to escalate until we see the End Game, a new heaven and new earth.
Health Alert! If you are a mental patient, have immune system issues, cognitive diminution, brain fog, and emotional instability (mood and emotions) with possible heart and stroke issues. The normal relaxed state of your brain when you are in an alpha is being disrupted by these electrical magnetic pulsations. This CMS can degrade your brain waves. Beware of an uptick in health problems for the next 24 hours that could very well rock your health.
Envision 350 mph winds howling across earth's landscape. 100 pound hailstones falling from the sky at the speed of light. Rough waves 10,000 feet tall terrorizing the oceans. Severe lightning so powerful that it is thought to have carved the Valles Marineris canyon on Mars that is 2,500 miles long, 120 miles wide and 23,000 ft deep! The peeling off of our atmosphere into deep space. These events have happened on earth and are set to return very soon. The ancients were witness passed this memory down in their genetics, stone petroglyphs, hieroglyphs, and oral stories. The government has been preparing since at least World War II with two intensification's: after the moon landings where he evidence confirmed what was coming. Within the last decade where there was a clear demarcation and shift in Emergency Management from typical disasters to space weather cataclysm's.
Space Weather has incredibly deep biblical threads that we will explore over the next week in this series on Catastrophism God's Judgment's: Preparing for Eternity. The research is slow-going, but will be worth the wait, for all of us.
You consult your daily weather for many reasons but do you factor in Space Weather?
Your observation of space weather is something that is critical to begin factoring into your daily routine. At some point your survival will depend upon your understanding of space weather and how it will impact your life. Creation is dynamic and things are changing in a big way in the heavens above you. Some say it is a 400 year event, while others say a 1000-2000 year event. Some even believe that it is a 12,000 or 36,000 year event. How long will it last? Guesses range from 80-1000 years. To begin to comprehend Catastrophism you will need some understanding of space weather.
Quiet Inside Preps
Since February 21st there has been a surge of educational materials being pulsed out in weekly communications to educate First Responders and those in Emergency Management on what to expect, and resources available to them, for handling Space Weather. The first communication can be seen here.
Solar Flares (Radio Blackout) effects on communications
Eruptions on the sun cause solar flares (radio blackouts) and release electromagnetic radiation. Flares travel at the speed of light and hit with no warning. By the time we know a flare has occurred, it is already affecting the sunlit side of the Earth. High Frequency (HF) radio waves, used for most modern communications, travel over long distances by refracting off the upper layers of the ionosphere. If a solar flare is strong enough, it can degrade HF radio waves or completely absorb them, causing radio blackouts. Depending on the solar flare’s intensity, damage to emergency communications can range from some static to complete loss.
NOAA Space Weather Scale classifies solar flares from R 1 (minor) to R 5 (extreme). The intensity of a flare can last seconds to hours. How badly they impact radio and navigational systems depends on the scale and duration of the event. NOAA SWPC provide daily space weather predictions for responders and emergency management at Ready.gov
On March 7th this was released:
Solar radiation storms affect emergency response
Large-scale magnetic eruptions from the sun also cause solar radiation storms through coronal mass ejections. These storms accelerate protons to the point they can reach earth in only 30 minutes, penetrating the magnetosphere and can cause DNA damage and harm electronic circuits. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) rates solar radiation storms on a scale from S 1 to S 5. The scale and duration determine the impact on radio and navigational systems. Storms rated S 2 or higher expose people on high-flying aircraft at high latitudes to radiation. The strongest storms can affect high frequency (HF) radio, making communications difficult or impossible. HF communications degradation could prevent emergency response units and agencies from collaborating during emergency response and disasters.
On March 14 this was released:
When conditions are just right, solar winds cause shifts in the space surrounding Earth, resulting in a geomagnetic storm. It often takes several days for a geomagnetic storm to reach Earth. They produce major changes to Earth’s magnetosphere, and are the cause of the beautiful aurora borealis. Geomagnetic storms also affect movement of low-earth orbit satellites, resulting in errors in positioning and navigational systems. They can create harmful geomagnetic induced currents in the power grids and pipelines. It’s possible for these storms to cause power grid energy spikes, which could trigger fires, power blackouts and physically harm individuals coming into contact with storm spiked wires or pipelines. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) classifies geomagnetic storms using a five-level Space Weather Scale ranging from G 1 (minor) to G 5 (extreme). The scale and duration determine the magnitude of impact on radio and navigational systems.
What we will see in the days to come?
The Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights) are the result of electrons colliding with the upper reaches of Earth’s atmosphere. (Protons cause faint and diffuse aurora, usually not easily visible to the human eye.) For several years now, auroras manifest taking the shape of demonic figures. The electrons are energized through acceleration processes in the downwind tail (night side) of the magnetosphere and at lower altitudes along auroral field lines. The accelerated electrons follow the magnetic field of Earth down to the Polar Regions where they collide with oxygen and nitrogen atoms and molecules in Earth’s upper atmosphere. In these collisions, the electrons transfer their energy to the atmosphere thus exciting the atoms and molecules to higher energy states. When they relax back down to lower energy states, they release their energy in the form of light. This is similar to how a neon light works.
Earth’s magnetic field guides the electrons such that the aurora forms two ovals approximately centered at the magnetic poles. During major geomagnetic storms these ovals expand away from the poles such that aurora can be seen over most of the United States. Often the auroral forms are made of many tall rays that look much like a curtain made of folds of cloth. During the evening, these rays can form arcs that stretch from horizon to horizon. Late in the evening, near midnight, the arcs often begin to twist and sway, just as if a wind were blowing on the curtains of light. At some point, the arcs may expand to fill the whole sky, moving rapidly and becoming very bright. Then in the early morning the auroral forms can take on a more cloud-like appearance. These diffuse patches often blink on and off repeatedly for hours, then they disappear as the sun rises in the east.
Space weather impacts are in their nascence along with deliberate obfuscation of the latest information on health impacts. Auroras are beautiful light shows in the skies and I could find no serious health impacts, but that does not mean they do not exist, only our access to that data.
This week we will be seeing coronal hole activity although minimal. Sun spots do not need to be present for this kind of activity. Coronal holes appear as dark areas in the solar corona in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray solar images. They appear dark because they are cooler, less dense regions than the surrounding plasma and are regions of open, unipolar magnetic fields. This open, magnetic field line structure allows the solar wind to escape more readily into space, resulting in streams of relatively fast solar wind and is often referred to as a high speed stream in the context of analysis of structures in interplanetary space.
Coronal holes can develop at any time and location on the Sun, but are more common and persistent during the years around solar minimum. The more persistent coronal holes can sometimes last through several solar rotations (27-day periods). Persistent coronal holes are long-lasting sources for high speed solar wind streams.
Geomagnetic storms are classified using a five-level NOAA Space Weather Scale. The larger and more expansive coronal holes can often be a source for high solar wind speeds that buffet Earth for many days.
Images courtesy of NASA and the SOHO and STEREO missions
Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are large expulsions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun’s corona. These are the hurricanes of space weather. They can eject billions of tons of coronal material and carry an embedded magnetic field (frozen in flux) that is stronger than the background solar wind interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength. CMEs travel outward from the Sun at speeds ranging from slower than 250 kilometers per second (km/s) to as fast as near 3000 km/s. The fastest Earth-directed CMEs can reach our planet in as little as 15-18 hours. Slower CMEs can take several days to arrive. They expand in size as they propagate away from the Sun and larger CMEs can reach a size comprising nearly a quarter of the space between Earth and the Sun by the time it reaches our planet.
The more explosive CMEs generally begin when highly twisted magnetic field structures (flux ropes) contained in the Sun’s lower corona become too stressed and realign into a less tense configuration – a process called magnetic reconnection. This can result in the sudden release of electromagnetic energy in the form of a solar flare; which typically accompanies the explosive acceleration of plasma away from the Sun – the CME. These types of CMEs usually take place from areas of the Sun with localized fields of strong and stressed magnetic flux. CMEs traveling faster than the background solar wind speed can generate a shock wave. These shock waves can accelerate charged particles ahead of them – causing increased radiation storm potential or intensity.
Sudden increases in density, total interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength, and solar wind speed at the DSCOVR indicate arrival of the CME-associated interplanetary shock ahead of the magnetic cloud. This can often provide 15 to 60 minutes advanced warning of shock arrival at Earth.
Solar storms desynchronize our circadian rhythm, in other words our biological clock. The pineal gland in our brain is affected by the electromagnetic activity.
This causes the gland to produce excess melatonin, and melatonin is the brain’s built in “downer” that helps us sleep.
“The circadian regulatory system depends on repeated environmental cues to [synchronize] internal clocks,” says psychiatrist Kelly Posner, Columbia University. “Magnetic fields may be one of these environmental cues.”
Psychological effects of coronal mass ejections can result in headache, palpitations, mood swings, and feeling generally unwell. Chaotic or confused thinking and erratic behaviors also increase.
According to Professor Raymond Wheeler of the University of Kansas and Russian scientist Alexander Chizhevsky solar storms can directly cause conflict, wars and even death among humans on Earth.
The magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding Earth where the dominant magnetic field is the magnetic field of Earth, rather than the magnetic field of interplanetary space. The magnetosphere is formed by the interaction of the solar wind with Earth’s magnetic field. Earth’s magnetic field is continually changing as it is buffeted by the solar wind.
It has been several thousand years since the Chinese discovered that certain magnetic minerals, called lodestones, would align in roughly the north-south direction. The reason for this effect wasn’t understood, though, until 1600, when William Gilbert published De Magnete and demonstrated that our Earth behaved like a giant magnet and loadstones were aligning with Earth’s magnetic field.
A continuous flow of plasma from the sun, comprised of mostly electrons and protons, with an embedded magnetic field, interacts with Earth and other objects in the solar system.
The interaction between the solar wind and Earth’s magnetic field, and the influence of the underlying atmosphere and ionosphere, creates various regions of fields, plasmas, and currents inside the magnetosphere such as the plasmasphere, the ring current, and radiation belts. The consequence is that conditions inside the magnetosphere are highly dynamic and create what we call “space weather” that can affect technological systems and human activities. Influences from the magnetosphere on the ionosphere can affect satellites, communication, and navigation systems.
Scientific research has reported frequencies can affect the human cardiovascular system because these frequencies are in a comparable range with those of the human heartbeat and rhythms.
The experiments on the animals showed changes in the electrophysiological, neurochemical and biochemical parameters. The following results were observed:
Changes in the cardiac functions during exposure to 0.01 Hz and 0.1 Hz frequency waves.
Biochemically: the exposure to 0.01 Hz to 0.1 Hz (facing North), caused an increase in blood sugar in animals.
Brainwaves (EEG): An accentuation of alpha and beta rhythms was observed in humans facing East, indicating a state of restful mental alertness. The subjects felt calm and relaxed and reported a state of pleasant feelings.
In normal subjects facing North, the EEG was reduced considerably (as compared to before the recording). The subjects experienced uneasiness, confusion and restlessness and a lack of sense of well-being when subjected to the pulsating fields.
Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) are the slowly varying, highly energetic background source of energetic particles that constantly bombard Earth.GCR originate outside the solar system and are likely formed by explosive events such as supernova. These highly energetic particles consist of essentially every element ranging from hydrogen, accounting for approximately 89% of the GCR spectrum, to uranium, which is found in trace amounts only. These nuclei are fully ionized, meaning all electrons have been stripped from these atoms. Because of this, these particles interact with and are influenced by magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields of the Sun modulate the GCR flux and spectrum at Earth.
Near solar minimum, in the absence of many coronal mass ejections and their corresponding magnetic fields, GCR particles have easier access to Earth. Just as the solar cycle follows a roughly 11-year cycle, so does the GCR, with its maximum, however, coming near solar minimum. But unlike the solar cycle, where bursts of activity can change the environment quickly, the GCR spectrum remains relatively constant in energy and composition, varying only slowly with time.
These charged particles are traveling at large fractions of the speed of light and have tremendous energy. When these particles hit the atmosphere, large showers of secondary particles are created with some even reaching the ground. This constant shower of GCR particles at high latitudes can result in increased radiation exposures for aircrew and passengers at high latitudes and altitudes to the degree that the insurance industry is beginning to question whether they insure individuals who fly due to the health impacts. Additionally, these particles can easily pass through or stop in satellite systems, sometimes depositing enough energy to result in errors or damage in spacecraft electronics and systems.
Humans in Space Passengers and Crew on aircraft at high latitudes (polar routes). The effects of cosmic rays on the body can be pretty terrifying. While on lunar missions, for example, astronauts often reported seeing flashes of light when they closed their eyes – the direct result of cosmic rays passing through their retinas. A few even developed cataracts years later. Cosmic rays would bombard our bodies and could even damage our DNA, increasing worldwide risk of cancer and other illnesses.
A geomagnetic storm is a major disturbance of Earth's magnetosphere that occurs when there is a very efficient exchange of energy from the solar wind into the space environment surrounding Earth. These storms result from variations in the solar wind that produces major changes in the currents, plasmas, and fields in Earth’s magnetosphere. The solar wind conditions that are effective for creating geomagnetic storms are sustained (for several to many hours) periods of high-speed solar wind, and most importantly, a southward directed solar wind magnetic field (opposite the direction of Earth’s field) at the dayside of the magnetosphere. This condition is effective for transferring energy from the solar wind into Earth’s magnetosphere.
The largest storms that result from these conditions are associated with solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) where a billion tons or so of plasma from the sun, with its embedded magnetic field, arrives at Earth. CMEs typically take several days to arrive at Earth, but have been observed, for some of the most intense storms, to arrive in as short as 18 hours. Another solar wind disturbance that creates conditions favorable to geomagnetic storms is a high-speed solar wind stream (HSS). HSSs plow into the slower solar wind in front and create co-rotating interaction regions, or CIRs. These regions are often related to geomagnetic storms that while less intense than CME storms, often can deposit more energy in Earth’s magnetosphere over a longer interval.
Storms also result in intense currents in the magnetosphere, changes in the radiation belts, and changes in the ionosphere, including heating the ionosphere and upper atmosphere region called the thermosphere. In space, a ring of westward current around Earth produces magnetic disturbances on the ground. In addition, there are currents produced in the magnetosphere that follow the magnetic field, called field-aligned currents, and these connect to intense currents in the auroral ionosphere.
During storms, the currents in the ionosphere, as well as the energetic particles that precipitate into the ionosphere add energy in the form of heat that can increase the density and distribution of density in the upper atmosphere, causing extra drag on satellites in low-earth orbit. The local heating also creates strong horizontal variations in the in the ionospheric density that can modify the path of radio signals and create errors in the positioning information provided by GPS. While the storms create beautiful aurora, they also can disrupt navigation systems such as the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and create harmful geomagnetic induced currents (GICs) in the power grid and pipelines.
Schizophrenia, arterial blood pressure increases, adrenaline increases, 13% higher risk of heart attack, increased heart rate and blood pressure, and interestingly people with irregular heart beats stabilize during geomagnetic storms.
Reproductive, immune system, cardiac and neurological problems. Mental disorders, depression and suicide. Increased hospital admissions, accidents and sudden death, as well as countless other stress-related conditions.
It appears that sharp or sudden variations in geomagnetic and solar activity as well as geomagnetic storms can act as stressors, which alter regulatory processes such as melatonin/serotonin balance, blood pressure, breathing, reproductive, immune, neurological, and cardiac system processes. Geomagnetic disturbances are associated with significant increases in hospital admissions for depression, mental disorders, psychiatric admission, suicide attempts, homicides and traffic accidents. Disturbed geomagnetic activity can also exacerbate existing diseases and is correlated with significant increases in cardiac arrhythmia, cardiovascular disease, incidence of myocardial infarction related death, alterations in blood flow, increased blood pressure, and epileptic seizures.
The Ionosphere is part of Earth’s upper atmosphere, between 80 and about 600 km where Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) and x-ray solar radiation ionizes the atoms and molecules thus creating a layer of electrons. the ionosphere is important because it reflects and modifies radio waves used for communication and navigation. Other phenomena such as energetic charged particles and cosmic rays also have an ionizing effect and can contribute to the ionosphere.
The atmospheric atoms and molecules are impacted by the high energy the EUV and X-ray photons from the sun. The amount of energy (photon flux) at EUV and x-ray wavelengths varies by nearly a factor of ten over the 11 year solar cycle. Due to spectral variability of the solar radiation and the density of various constituents in the atmosphere, there are layers are created within the ionosphere, called the D, E, and F-layers. Other solar phenomena, such as flares, and changes in the solar wind and geomagnetic storms also effect the charging of the ionosphere. Since the largest amount of ionization is caused by solar irradiance.
Impacts Radio Communication Radio Navigation (GPS) Satellite Communication
Ionospheric parameters explain a greater part of the variability in the number of deaths for acute myocardial infarction or brain stroke. The cardiovascular diseases thus respond to the changes in the solar activity and to abnormal solar events indirectly through a concentration of electrical charges in the earth's environment.
Electromagnetic impulses, like those from global lightening flashes (the world’s thunderstorm activity) fill this cavity and excite the Schumann resonances.
The observation of Schumann resonances can provide valuable information about solar activity, world thunderstorm activity, properties of the upper dissipative boundary layer, the Earth-ionosphere cavity and climatic changes. It has been found in previous studies that the Schumann resonances can influence human health indicators such as blood pressure, and it is likely that they also affect cardiac and neurological disease, violence and war.
Image courtesy of Geospace Research Center, Nagoya University
Ionospheric scintillation is the rapid modification of radio waves caused by small scale structures in the ionosphere. Severe scintillation conditions can prevent a GPS receiver from locking on to the signal and can make it impossible to calculate a position. Less severe scintillation conditions can reduce the accuracy and the confidence of positioning results.
Scintillation of radio waves impacts the power and phase of the radio signal. Scintillation is caused by small-scale (tens of meters to tens of km) structure in the ionospheric electron density along the signal path and is the result of interference of refracted and/or diffracted (scattered) waves. Scintillation is a strong function of local time, season, geomagnetic activity, and solar cycle but it also influenced by waves propagating from the lower atmosphere.
Image: R.V. Hilmer, Air Force Research Laboratory
Radiation belts are regions of enhanced populations of energetic electrons and protons surrounding the Earth in space. These belts are highly dynamic, increasing and decreasing on time scales of minutes to years. The high levels of radiation caused by the energetic electrons and protons makes this a very harsh region for satellites.
Radiation belt particle motion and dynamics are controlled to a great extent by the magnetic and electric fields in space and how these fields vary as a result of the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetic and plasma environment.
High energy radiation belt protons, and even higher energy galactic cosmic rays, can alter the electronic state of sensitive electronic devices on satellites, resulting in computer errors or failures. In the case of high-energy electrons, they can cause serious damage to satellite cables and computer chips through a process called deep dielectric charging that culminates in harmful discharges.
Solar EUV Irradiance
Figure: R. Viereck
Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) is solar radiation that covers the wavelengths 10 – 120 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is highly energetic and it is absorbed in the upper atmosphere, which not only heats the upper atmosphere but also ionizes it, creating the ionosphere. Solar EUV radiation changes by a factor of ten over the course of a typical solar cycle. This variability produces similar variations in the ionosphere and upper atmosphere.
Solar Extreme-Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation originates in the corona and chromosphere of the Sun’s atmosphere. The EUV photons reach Earth and are completely absorbed in the upper atmosphere above 80 km. The thermosphere of the earth, 80 to 600 km in altitude, is heated predominantly by solar EUV radiation. The EUV photons also ionize the atmosphere creating electrons, which form the ionosphere. Solar EUV irradiance varies by as much as an order of magnitude on time scales of minutes to hours (solar flares), days to months (solar rotation), and years to decades (solar cycle). The highly varying EUV radiation causes the thermosphere and ionosphere to vary over similar magnitudes and time scales.
Health Impact: Cancer, DNA damage, cataracts,
Solar Flares (Radio Blackouts)
Solar flares are large eruptions of electromagnetic radiation from the Sun lasting from minutes to hours. The sudden outburst of electromagnetic energy travels at the speed of light, therefore any effect upon the sunlit side of Earth’s exposed outer atmosphere occurs at the same time the event is observed. The increased level of X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation results in ionization in the lower layers of the ionosphere on the sunlit side of Earth. Under normal conditions, high frequency (HF) radio waves are able to support communication over long distances by refraction via the upper layers of the ionosphere. When a strong enough solar flare occurs, ionization is produced in the lower, more dense layers of the ionosphere (the D-layer), and radio waves that interact with electrons in layers lose energy due to the more frequent collisions that occur in the higher density environment of the D-layer. This can cause HF radio signals to become degraded or completely absorbed. This results in a radio blackout – the absence of HF communication, primarily impacting the 3 to 30 MHz band. The D-RAP (D-Region Absorption Prediction) product correlates flare intensity to D-layer absorption strength and spread.
Solar flares usually take place in active regions, which are areas on the Sun marked by the presence of strong magnetic fields; typically associated with sunspot groups. As these magnetic fields evolve, they can reach a point of instability and release energy in a variety of forms. These include electromagnetic radiation, which are observed as solar flares.
Radio blackouts are classified using a five-level NOAA Space Weather Scale, directly related to the flare’s max peak in soft X-rays reached or expected.
The table below provides the correlation between radio blackouts, solar flares, nominal energy flux (watts per square meter), and the designated severity event description.
Radio Blackout….. X-ray Flare….. Flux (W/m2)….. Severity Descriptor
R1 M1 0.00001 Minor
R2 M5 0.00005 Moderate
R3 X1 0.0001 Strong
R4 X10 0.001 Severe
R5 X20 0.002 Extreme
Solar Radiation Storm
Solar radiation storms occur when a large-scale magnetic eruption, often causing a coronal mass ejection and associated solar flare, accelerates charged particles in the solar atmosphere to very high velocities. The most important particles are protons which can get accelerated to 1/3 the speed of light or 100,000 km/sec. At these speeds, the protons can traverse the 150 million km from sun to Earth in just 30 minutes. When they reach Earth, the fast moving protons penetrate the magnetosphere that shields Earth from lower energy charged particles. Once inside the magnetosphere, the particles are guided down the magnetic field lines such that they penetrate the atmosphere near the north and south poles.
NOAA categorizes Solar Radiation Storms using the NOAA Space Weather Scale on a scale from S1 - S5. The scale is based on measurements of energetic protons taken by the GOES satellite in geosynchronous orbit. A Solar Radiation Storm can persist for time periods ranging from hours to days.
When energetic protons collide with satellites or humans in space, they can penetrate deep into the object that they collide with and cause damage to electronic circuits or biological DNA and high flying aircraft at high latitudes may be exposed to radiation risk.
Image courtesy of NASA
The solar wind continuously flows outward from the Sun and consists mainly of protons and electrons in a state known as a plasma. Solar magnetic field is embedded in the plasma and flows outward with the solar wind.
Different regions on the Sun produce solar wind of different speeds and densities. Coronal holes produce solar wind of high speed, ranging from 500 to 800 kilometers per second. The north and south poles of the Sun have large, persistent coronal holes, so high latitudes are filled with fast solar wind. In the equatorial plane, where the Earth and the other planets orbit, the most common state of the solar wind is the slow speed wind, with speeds of about 400 kilometers per second. This portion of the solar wind forms the equatorial current sheet.
Because the Sun rotates every 27 days, the solar wind becomes a complex spiral of high and low speeds and high and low densities that looks like the skirt of a twirling ballerina. When high speed solar overtakes slow speed wind, it creates something known as a corotating interaction region. These interaction regions consist of solar wind with very high densities and strong magnetic fields.
IMAGES courtesy of NASA
Sunspots are dark areas that become apparent at the Sun’s photosphere as a result of intense magnetic flux pushing up from further within the solar interior. Areas along this magnetic flux in the upper photosphere and chromosphere heat up often times termed active regions. This causes cooler (7000 F), less dense and darker areas at the heart of these magnetic fields than in the surrounding photosphere (10,000 F) - seen as sunspots. Active regions associated with sunspot groups are usually visible as bright enhancements in the corona at EUV and X-ray wavelengths. Rapid changes in the magnetic field alignment of sunspot groups’ associated active regions are the most likely sources of significant space weather events such as solar flares, CMEs, radiations storms, and radio bursts.
Sunspots appear in a wide variety of shapes and forms. The darkest area of a sunspot (also the first to be observed) is called the umbrae. As the sunspot matures (becomes more intense), a less dark, outlying area of well-defined fibril-like structure develops around the umbrae - called penumbra. Sunspots can grow from an individual unipolar spot into more organized bipolar spot groups; or even evolve into immense, very complex sunspot groups with mixed magnetic polarities throughout the group. The largest sunspot groups can cover large swaths of the Sun’s surface and be many times the size of Earth.
Sunspots can change continuously and may last for only a few hours to days; or even months for the more intense groups. The total number of sunspots has long been known to vary with an approximately 11-year repetition known as the solar cycle. The peak of sunspot activity is known as solar maximum and the lull is known as solar minimum. Solar cycles started being assigned consecutive numbers. This number assignment began with solar cycle 1 in 1755 and the most recent being cycle 24 – which began in December, 2008 and is now nearing solar minimum. A new solar cycle is considered to have begun when sunspot groups emerge at higher latitudes with the magnetic polarities of the leading spots opposite that of the previous cycle. A plot of sunspot number progression for the previous and current solar cycle, and that compares the observed and smoothed values with the official sunspot number forecast provided by the Solar Cycle Prediction Panel representing NOAA, the International Space Environmental Services (ISES), and NASA is available to view on our SWPC webpage at solar cycle progression.
Total Electron Content
The Total Electron Content (TEC) is the total number of electrons present along a path between a radio transmitter and receiver. Radio waves are affected by the presence of electrons. The more electrons in the path of the radio wave, the more the radio signal will be affected. For ground to satellite communication and satellite navigation, TEC is a good parameter to monitor for possible space weather impacts.
The TEC in the ionosphere is modified by changing solar Extreme Ultra-Violet radiation, geomagnetic storms, and the atmospheric waves that propagate up from the lower atmosphere. The TEC will therefore depend on local time, latitude, longitude, season, geomagnetic conditions, solar cycle and activity, and troposphere conditions. The propagation of radio waves is affected by the ionosphere. The velocity of radio waves changes when the signal passes through the electrons in the ionosphere.
We will look at things such as Pole Shift and Reversal and crustal shifts later in this series.
Space Weather Dashboards
Dashboards have been set up for both Emergency Management and Space Weather Enthusiasts. What can you see? Take a peek:
This is for today at the Emergency Management site:
Pretty much all is quiet right now but a G2 Magnetic Storm is predicted to hit us today.
For Space Weather Enthusiasts, here is your dashboard:
As you can see the data you need to make wise decisions is available. There is a learning curve as you become accustomed to the glossary of words and to know when space weather is concerning for your personal situation.
There are many other graphs and charts available for you to view once you get your feet wet. In your mind begin to link earth weather, space weather, your health, and God's majestic plan of salvation that includes a New Heaven and Earth. Take time to get used to the terminology and fluctuations before we delved into the wild and crazy world of Space Weather; Holy Scripture and Celestial Events; Gods and Goddesses of the Firmament; Numbers in Space; Secret Embedded Codes from Pre-Adamic civilizations; Heavenly Processional of Redemption and more. It is mind-blowing for sure but we will drill into down to practical spiritual and physical steps that you can make in your life. Brace yourself.
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Going where angels fear to tread...
Celeste has worked as a contractor for Homeland Security and FEMA. Her training and activation's include the infamous day of 911, flood and earthquake operations, mass casualty exercises, and numerous other operations. Celeste is FEMA certified and has completed the Professional Development Emergency Management Series.
Emergency Plan Design including all Emergency Support Functions
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Celeste grew up in a military & governmental home with her father working for the Naval Warfare Center, and later as Assistant Director for Public Lands and Natural Resources, in both Washington State and California.
Celeste also has training and expertise in small agricultural lobbying, Integrative/Functional Medicine, asymmetrical and symmetrical warfare, and Organic Farming.
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